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Importance of Natural Resources in Africa

The importance of natural resources, particularly oil, and gas, has been growing worldwide. This is partly due to the increase in globalization, but it’s also because of the increasing energy demand. In addition, natural resources are essential for sustainable development.


Even though forests are critical natural resources, policymakers often do not adequately measure and understand them. This is because forest products contribute to the livelihoods of poor rural households, but they are rarely included in national income accounting.

This lack of detailed data on household-forest interactions is a significant challenge for forest resource conservation in Africa. This problem can be addressed by strengthening the governance of the forest sector. 

This can be accomplished by setting formal rules for collecting forest products and monitoring and evaluating outcomes. It can also be achieved through informing and involving communities in a dialogue about their forest use.

It is essential to promote women’s participation in decision-making. This can be achieved by providing women with skills to take advantage of income-generation activities. It can also be achieved by encouraging women to participate in community meetings. Currently, men dominate decision-making at community-level meetings, and women are often not encouraged to participate.

Forests play a critical role in the water cycle. They also provide food security during times of crisis. However, deforestation threatens forest habitats, resulting in decreased household needs. The informal forest sector provides an essential source of income for rural Liberians and also offers jobs for urban Liberians.

Formal rules for collecting forest products should be promoted across all communities to help prevent individuals from failing to work together. They should also be designed to ensure equitable sharing of the benefits of forest products among households.


Agricultural production is one of the most important economic activities in Africa. It employs two-thirds of the working population. Agriculture also plays a critical role in food security. It is also essential to the livelihoods of smallholder farmers. 

The African continent has much to gain by tapping its natural resources. However, the full potential of agriculture in Africa is yet to be fully tapped.

Agriculture’s contribution to the GDP of sub-Saharan Africa has been 23 percent. The region is estimated to need to increase agricultural production by 70 percent by 2050. This will require a substantial investment in infrastructure and inputs. The continent also needs to ensure that future exploitation of its natural resources is climate resilient.

Natural resources are critical to the economy of most African countries. They are used for subsistence, commercial purposes, and exports. However, most agriculture in Africa has been limited to subsistence farming. 

A complex communal tenure system has influenced this system. It has also prevented capital mobilization for modernizing production.

As a result, the agriculture sector is relatively low productivity. Some countries have made efforts to raise productivity levels. Others have used better seeds, insecticides, and mineral fertilizers. However, many countries still have a low productivity system.

The most productive country in sub-Saharan Africa is Ethiopia. This country’s success is mainly due to government involvement in agriculture. Another reason for the success is improved input adoption. In addition, improved land management and access to finance have allowed some farmers to invest in more sophisticated production systems.


Historically, Africa has drawn little benefit from mineral wealth. The continent has been unprofitable for years, despite producing some of the world’s largest mineral deposits. But the mining industry is vital in helping nations achieve industrial development.

The mining industry contributes a substantial percentage to national economies in Africa. The sector is expected to grow by more than two-thirds over the next four decades. It provides basic raw materials for industries and fuels development in other parts of the world.

However, the mining sector is also susceptible to environmental risks. Governments may sometimes intervene in mining operations to protect the environment or local communities. And in other cases, international mining companies may intervene to ensure the safety of native communities.

Mining regulatory changes have occurred across the continent in the past five years. For instance, the government announced mining companies’ annual levies in Tanzania. These levies are intended to help fund an “empowerment fund” for local communities.

The industry also generates significant revenue for governments. But many mining operations have little to show for the investment they make. This is especially true in countries that are still coming out of war.

The political economy of Africa is heavily rooted in the history of mineral exploitation. Many governments, including the Democratic Republic of Congo, have attempted to exert increased control over resource rents. And citizens of resource-rich countries demand better social benefits from their natural resources.


Increasingly, oil and gas production in Africa is considered an essential natural resource. However, African oil and gas reserves are, on average more carbon intensive than those in other regions. This puts a burden on countries producing these resources. It also means that exploitation must be done sustainably.

Africa has much to gain by pursuing sustainable exploitation of its natural resources. However, the continent faces several challenges. Inefficient government regulation is a significant issue. Illegal mining and logging are other issues. African countries also have poor infrastructure. In addition, many rural communities have been forced to abandon farmland in favor of mining operations.

As African countries look to expand their oil and gas production, they must consider several strategic approaches. For example, they could invest in renewable energy projects. They could also streamline permitting processes and strengthen contract enforcement. They may also consider improving their access to capital pools and attracting the right skills.

Several oil and gas-producing African countries have already embarked on reforms to curb corruption. However, a recent study by Human Rights Watch has shown that there is still a need to strengthen regulation against corruption.

African countries should also improve their cost competitiveness and ease of doing business. In addition, they should also consider creating an enabling environment for renewable energy projects and decarbonizing existing oil operations.

Natural gas

Despite the importance of natural resources in Africa, the continent is not fully harnessing them. African countries must improve the ease of business, attract talent, and improve access to capital pools. In addition, the continent needs to focus on a long-term transition to a low-carbon future.

Aside from coal and petroleum, Africa is home to several other resources, such as diamonds, cobalt, iron ore, and salt. The African Ministerial Conference on the Environment recently acknowledged these natural resources’ value and their role in creating wealth.

Africa produces approximately 12 percent of the world’s total oil production and has the potential to produce more than a fifth of global natural gas. This will require the continent to find ways to manage its resources efficiently and sustainably.

African governments should work together to create a forum that brings together diverse players to find solutions to the problems of delivering energy to the continent’s growing population. This could involve attracting investors and leveraging existing government infrastructure to improve access to energy. 

This could also include addressing regional insecurity and regulatory levers that can lower operating costs.

African countries should also consider investing in clean technology and renewable energy. 

This could include decarbonizing existing production, focusing on carbon offset businesses, and improving efficiency in the energy sector.

Sustainable development

Using natural resources for sustainable development is crucial for Africa’s development. But the continent faces several challenges, including environmental degradation and conflicts related to resource extraction. Investing in the sector can boost economic growth and reduce poverty. 

But it should be done in a way that ensures the sustainable development of investments.

At the conference, participants discussed Africa’s challenges in harnessing its natural resources. It also addressed how governments, private businesses, local communities, and civil society can collaborate more effectively. The event facilitated dialogue on the role of civil society in community engagement, promotion of accountability, and ensuring that development is inclusive.

The speakers offered policy options to help increase the meaningful inclusion of local communities. The African continent has vast natural resources, including mineral, oil, and gas reserves. These resources should be a source of economic growth and jobs. 

But a poor economy in developing countries and weak institutions make it difficult for resource extraction to contribute to sustainable development.

The conference addressed several questions, including whether governments can effectively integrate environmental protection into their policies, whether communities can balance the benefits of natural resources with more sustainable development, and whether civil society can help strengthen the capacity of Africa’s regional organizations to manage resources. 

Several speakers also suggested policy solutions to address the violence often accompanying competing uses of natural resources.

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